Journal

THE JOURNAL

A fully illustrated annual journal contains authoritative articles based on original research. With at least 150 pages and over 100 illustrations, many in colour, the Journal is of permanent scholarly value to both institutions and collectors.

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JOURNAL 42 – 2018

Past Journals

IDENTIFYING EDWARD WELBY PUGIN’S FURNITURE FOR THE GRANVILLE HOTEL: SOME OBSERVATIONS AND A THEORY.

Following his famous father’s untimely death in 1852, Edward Welby Pugin (1834-75) successfully ran the family architectural practice, restoring or designing more than one hundred Catholic churches and a handful of houses. The Granville Hotel in Ramsgate, Kent was originally conceived and designed by E. W. Pugin as a terrace of eight symmetrical holiday villas. However, it soon became his financial and mental undoing. The furnishing of the hotel complex is the subject of this article. It has been generally assumed that E. W. Pugin manufactured all of his furniture in his own workshop in Ramsgate. Known as the South Eastern Works, it produced furniture to his designs not only for the Granville Hotel, but also for other commissions such as Scarisbrick Hall in Lancashire. However, contemporaneous comment in the local press suggests that the contents of the Granville Hotel were made both in Ramsgate and in London. E. W. Pugin was under financial strain when the hotel finally opened to paying guests in 1870, and he set about trying to capitalise on the new Granville designs. The emergence of two photographs dateable to before 1899 has allowed us to begin to clarify some of these attributions of the Granville furniture for the first time.

Paul A. Shutler

CASTING A NEW DESIGN: JAPANESE MEIJI METALWORK AND THE GORHAM MANUFACTURING COMPANY AT THE RISD MUSEUM.

The RISD Museum owns the largest collection of works by the Gorham Manufacturing Company, comprising over 4,525 examples of silver, metalwork, furniture, jewellery, medals, bronze sculptures, design drawings, and watercolors. Many Gorham objects illustrate the trajectory of ‘Japanesque’ design as it transformed silver production in America and facilitated an amalgamation of Eastern design sources to permeate silver designs, forms, techniques, and ornamentation. The Furber Service, comprising hundreds of dining, serving, and decorative pieces made between 1869-80, until 1878 reflected the prevailing Renaissance Revival High Victorian style, yet pieces added after this date shifted towards Japanesque style.

Central to understanding the way in which Gorham designers and silversmiths used Japanese designs is the identification of specific volumes not valued principally as art books – although some of them were very costly – but rather actively handled on the smiths’ workbenches. Designs such as those of the Japanese artist Katsushika Hokusai (1760–1849) were both copied and adapted. Gorham also incorporated Japanese metalworking technology, an aspect of Aesthetic silver that is frequently overlooked in favour of form and decoration. The extensive chromatic range of alloys and metalworking processes unique to Japanese metallurgy were integral to Gorham’s success with Japanesque designs.

Elizabeth A. Williams

CHRISTOPHER DRESSER AND LONDOS AND CO.

At the end of 1876 Christopher Dresser (1834-1904), the prominent British designer and design theorist, realised his longstanding goal of visiting Japan, the source of distinctive art manufactures that had fascinated him for many years. This article describes how Dresser attained this goal, becoming – it is believed – the first professional designer from the West to visit Japan. Central to this story is Dresser’s relationship with the British fancy-goods importer Charles, Reynolds and Co. During the early 1870s, they established a new firm named Londos and Co which was dedicated to the acquisition, importation and sale of high-quality Japanese art manufactures. Dresser became a partner in Londos and also served as its art adviser.

Two of the firm’s earliest and most important buying assignments comprised the acquisition of large quantities of Japanese art manufactures for Londos and for Tiffany and Co, the American retailer. A careful analysis of Dresser’s relationship with Londos and Co illuminates one of his most significant characteristics: his adroitness as a strategic thinker, which is evidenced by his success in amalgamating the goals and resources of multiple entities for the purpose of visiting Japan, an experience that had a profound effect on his fortunes and artistic vision.

David A. Taylor

TRACING TRADITIONAL STITCHED TEXTILE PATTERNS IN A TRANSYLVANIAN HUNGARIAN COMMUNITY.

In an ethnic Hungarian region of what is today north-west Romania, peasant textile traditions that were in danger of dying out at the end of the nineteenth century were kept alive by one determined woman, Gyarmathy Zsigané Hory Etelka (1842–1910), who adapted the materials and patterns to suit the times. Between the wars and the shifting borders of the twentieth century, another woman, Kónya Gyuláné Schäfer Teréz (1884-1971), was largely responsible for raising the status and ensuring the survival of traditional stitching and embroidery. During the period of Communist rule and into the twenty-first century, a handful of women picked up the mantel and recorded what remained of the ancient and beautiful patterns of the open chain stitch, encouraging high quality sewing and research into these traditions.

Sara J. Meaker

ON THE BORDER: BARN CLOSE AND THE EVOLUTION OF THE ARTS AND CRAFTS INTERIOR, 1902-1931.

Barn Close, Carlisle, was built in 1902 for the architect turned industrialist Edwin Scott-Nicholson (1873–1931). It is a house rooted in the Arts and Crafts approach prevalent in the last decades of the nineteenth century, but it belongs also to what Noel Carrington defined as ‘the post Morris period’. The carefully chosen furnishings of the interiors, assembled over the first three decades of the twentieth century, encapsulate the Arts and Crafts movement’s complex legacy and the struggle to forge a new direction for British design. William Morris textiles and William De Morgan ceramics reach back to the origins of the movement in the previous century; silver cups and covers by Omar Ramsden are consciously historicist in style, reflecting a wider love of chivalry, heraldry and pageantry; while pieces by Harold Stabler, Ambrose Heal and Harry Peach’s furnishing firms are indicative of a strong allegiance to the Design and Industries Association founded in 1915. The Barn Close collection shows both the plurality of taste in this period and the impossibility of drawing a clear line between design movements.

Esmé Whittaker

ENGLISH WALLPAPERS IN THE APARTMENTS OF EMPEROR NICHOLAS II IN THE WINTER PALACE.

This article discusses recent research using antique black-and-white photographs of the apartments in the Winter Palace in St Petersburg, Russia, created in 1894-95 for Emperor Nicholas II and his family. One can detect the ‘English taste’ in the design of the private rooms belonging to the Imperial family. This assumption is supported by the lists of companies which supplied their wallpapers and fabrics in the Russian State archives – among them are English suppliers, such as Liberty, T. G. Litchfield, Charles Hindley and Sons and Morris and Co. In 2016 a joint study of this topic was conducted by the State Hermitage Museum and the Walker Greenbank Company of Buckinghamshire. It was possible to: identify the exact Morris and Co wallpapers that were used in the decor of the passage room in the Winter Palace; study the colour schemes of some of the private interiors (visible only in black-and-white photographs); and familiarise ourselves with the process of creating wallpapers in the 1890s, and the specifics of issuing orders for the Russian Imperial family in London. New data added important information to the history of the William Morris firm, and also expanded the notion of commercial and cultural ties between the Russian Empire and Great Britain towards the end of the nineteenth century.

Nicholas Onegin

PICKING UP THE THREAD: EXPLORING THE DESIGNS OF MAY MORRIS IN THE ASHMOLEAN MUSEUM.

In 1941 the Ashmolean Museum, Oxford, purchased a large quantity of drawings, embroidery patterns and black and white photographs discovered at Kelmscott Manor, the former home of May Morris (1862-1938). These remained mostly uncatalogued until recent interest in May as a designer and embroiderer prompted further research. This article traces May’s creative process by considering examples from this collection, from sensitive plant studies taken directly from nature and inventive design sketches, through to the final patterns for such iconic works as the ‘Kelmscott’ bedcover. It examines her approach to line and colour, and explores her varied sources of cultural and historical influence. Important items in the Ashmolean’s collection are further highlighted in relation to William Morris, Edward Burne-Jones, and Dante Gabriel Rossetti, as well as May’s Arts and Crafts collaborators, such as Walter Crane, Ernest Gimson, and the Pissarro family.

Caroline Palmer

KELMSCOTT AND MORRIS: PAST, PRESENT AND FUTURE.

The Society of Antiquaries of London has owned Kelmscott Manor, the beloved Oxfordshire country house of William Morris and his daughter, May Morris, since 1962. Support from the Heritage Lottery Fund (HLF) has allowed the Society to plan a careful repair and reordering of the Manor and its buildings, and the scheme excludes motor vehicles from the site. It makes sympathetic use of the historic barns to introduce visitors to the Manor and to cater more fully for their needs. It closes the southern side of the principal farmyard with a new Learning Building to provide educational activities and a base for an artist or craftsperson in residence. In the house, the furnishing and decoration of the rooms will approach more closely their condition in the time of the Morris family, while new and improved spaces will be provided for temporary exhibitions and to allow visitors access to scholarly resources.

John Maddison